Flower Example Using Tensorflow/Keras and Tensorflow Privacy#

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This example of Flower trains a federeated learning system where clients are free to choose between non-private and private optimizers. Specifically, clients can choose to train Keras models using the standard SGD optimizer or Differentially Private SGD (DPSGD) from Tensorflow Privacy. For this task we use the MNIST dataset which is split artificially among clients. This causes the dataset to be i.i.d. The clients using DPSGD track the amount of privacy spent and display it at the end of the training.

This example is adapted from https://github.com/tensorflow/privacy/blob/master/tutorials/mnist_dpsgd_tutorial_keras.py

Project Setup#

Start by cloning the example project. We prepared a single-line command that you can copy into your shell which will checkout the example for you:

git clone --depth=1 https://github.com/adap/flower.git && mv flower/examples/dp-sgd-mnist . && rm -rf flower && cd dp-sgd-mnist

This will create a new directory called dp-sgd-mnist containing the following files:

-- pyproject.toml
-- requirements.txt
-- client.py
-- server.py
-- common.py
-- README.md

Installing Dependencies#

Project dependencies (such as tensorflow and tensorflow-privacy) are defined in pyproject.toml and requirements.txt. We recommend Poetry to install those dependencies and manage your virtual environment (Poetry installation) or pip, but feel free to use a different way of installing dependencies and managing virtual environments if you have other preferences.


poetry install
poetry shell

Poetry will install all your dependencies in a newly created virtual environment. To verify that everything works correctly you can run the following command:

poetry run python3 -c "import flwr"

If you don’t see any errors you’re good to go!


Write the command below in your terminal to install the dependencies according to the configuration file requirements.txt.

pip install -r requirements.txt

Run Federated Learning with TensorFlow/Keras/Tensorflow-Privacy and Flower#

Afterwards you are ready to start the Flower server as well as the clients. You can simply start the server in a terminal as follows:

# terminal 1
poetry run python3 server.py

Now you are ready to start the Flower clients which will participate in the learning. To do so simply open two more terminals and run the following command in each:

# terminal 2
poetry run python3 client.py --partition 0
# terminal 3
# We will set the second client to use `dpsgd`
poetry run python3 client.py --partition 1 --dpsgd True

Alternatively you can run all of it in one shell as follows:

poetry run python3 server.py &
poetry run python3 client.py --partition 0 &
poetry run python3 client.py --partition 1 --dpsgd True

It should be noted that when starting more than 2 clients, the total number of clients you intend to run and the data partition the client is expected to use must be specified. This is because the num_clients is used to split the dataset.

For example, in case of 3 clients

poetry run python3 server.py --num-clients 3 &
poetry run python3 client.py --num-clients 3 --partition 0 --dpsgd True &
poetry run python3 client.py --num-clients 3 --partition 1 &
poetry run python3 client.py --num-clients 3 --partition 2 --dpsgd True

Additional training parameters for the client and server can be referenced by passing --help to either script.

Other things to note is that when all clients are running dpsgd, either train for more rounds or increase the local epochs to achieve optimal performance. You shall need to carefully tune the hyperparameters to your specific setup.

poetry run python3 server.py --num-clients 3  --num-rounds 20
poetry run python3 client.py --num-clients 3 --partition 1 --local-epochs 4 --dpsgd True